Bibliographical References for
Duke's Handbook of
Medicinal Plants of Latin America

& Other Botanical / Medical References

In some of our work we quote from Duke's authoritative reference on medicinal plants of Latin America, and other botanical and medical references.
The information below lists, alphabetically, the coded 3-digit bibliographical references that Duke annotates in much of his work. Those references not related to Duke also use his three-character scheme for consistency. As it relates to references to Duke (and for brevity's sake), we include only those that are referenced on our site.

Code Reference
60P Desmarchelier, C.; Wittig Schaus, F. (2000). Sesenta Plantas Medicinales de la Amazonia Peruana: Ecologia,k Etnomedicina y Bioactividad ("Sixty Medicinal Plants from the Peruvian Amazon: Ecology, Ethnomedicine and Bioactivity"). Lima. 270 pp.
AAB Arvigo, R, and Balick, M. (1993) Rainforest Remedies - One Hundred Healing Herbs Of Belize. Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, WI. 221 pp.
ADP Dhiman, A.K. (2006). Ayurvedic Drug Plants. Daya Publishing House, Delhi. 598p.
AHL Liogier, A.H. (1974). Diccionario Botanico de Nombres Vulgares de la Espanola. Impresora UNPHU, Santo Domingo, RD. 813 pp.
AJC American Journal Of Chinese Medicine
AKT Tillotson, A.K., Abel, R., Jr., Tillotson, N.H. and Bajracharya, V.M.B. 2001 The One Earth Herbal Sourcebook: Everything You Need to Know about Chinese, Western, and Ayurvedic Herbal Treatments. Twin Streams, Kensington Publishing Corp., New York. 5996 pp.
APA Peirce, A. (1999). The AphA Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. Stonesong Press Book, William Morrow & Co., Inc., New York. 728 pp.
AUS Austin D.F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 909 pp.
BEJ Bejar E., Bussmann R., Roa C., Sharon D. (2001). Herbs of Southern Ecuador Latino Herbal Press, Spring Valley, CA. 350 pp.
BGB Blumenthal, M., Goldberg, A., and Brickmann, J. (2000). Herbal Medicine - Expanded Commission E Monographs. Integrative Medicine Communication, Newton. MA. 516 pp
BIS Bisset, N.G. (1994) Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. (English translation of Wichtl, 1984. 1989) CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
BOU Boulos, L. Medicinal Plants of North Africa. Reference Publications, Algonac, MI. 286 pp.
BOW Bown, D. Revised American Edition. New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. DK Publishing, Inc., New York. 448 pp.
BRU Bruneton, J. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants, 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp
BUR Jacobs, M.L. and Burlage, H.M. Index of Plants of North Carolina with Reputed Medicinal Uses. (1958) Printed by H.M. Burlage, and dedicated to Marion Lee Jacobs, whose untimely death "prolonged the publication of this work." 322 pp.
CAN Newall, C.A., Anderson, L.A., and Phillipson, J.D. (1996) Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296 pp.
CRC Duke, J.A. (1985) Handbook Of Medicinal Herbs. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. 677 pp
CTD Castner, J.L., Timme, S.L., and Duke, J.A., 1998. A Field Guide to Medicinal and Useful Plants of the Upper Amazon, Feline Press, Gainesville, FL. 160 pp.
DAA Duke, J.A. and Ayensu, E.S. Medicinal Plants of China. 2 vols. Reference Publications, Algonac, MI. 705 pp.
DAD Duke and duCellier (1993). Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 536 pp.
DAV Duke, J.A. and Vasquez Martinez, R. 1994. Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 215 pp. Partially online at
DAW Duke, J.A.; Wain, K. 1991. Medicinal Plants of the World. USDA Computer listing of folk medicines of the world, now slightly updated and online at USDA (
DEM Moerman, D.E. Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 927 pp.
DEP Watt, G. (1889-1892: reprint 1972). Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. 6 vols., Nav Bharat Offset Process, Delhi, India.
DLZ De Lucca, D.M. and Zalles, A.J. 1992. Flor Medicinal Bolivia -- Diccionario Enciclopedia. Los Amigos del Libro, La Paz. 498 pp.
EB Economic Botany
EFS Steinmetz, E.F. Circa 1957. Codex Vegetabilis. All Botanical Drugs. Keizersgracht 347, Amsterdam. Unpaginated.
EGG Egg, A.B., 1999, Diccionario Enciclopédico de Plantas Útiles de Perú. Centro de Estudios Regionales Andinos Bartolomé de Las Casas, Cuzco, 550 pp.
EMP Economic and Medicinal Plant Research
FEL Felter, H.W. and Lloyd, J.U. 1989. King's American Dispensatory. 2 vols., 18th edition, third revision. Reprinted Eclectic Medical Publications. Portland, OR 1983. 2 vols. 2172 pp.
FNF Father's Nature Farmacy (online databases)
FT Fitoterapia
GAZ Skenderie, G. Herbal Vade Mecum (2003). Herbacy Press, Rutherford, NJ. 480 pp
GMH Grieve, M. A Modern Herbal (1931). Hafner Press, New York. 915 pp. Dover Reprint; 2 vols. First reprinted 1971. Dover, New York. 902 pp.
GMJ Grenand, P.; Moretti, C.; Jacquemin, H.(1987). Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. L'orstrom, Paris. 569 pp.
HAD An Herb a Day by James Duke, many published in Business of Herbs, some in Wild Food Forum.
HH2 Hansel, R.; Keller, K.; Rimpler, H.; Schneider, G. (1992, 1993, 1994: 3 volumes). Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D, E-O, P-Z). Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (1209, 970, and 1197 pp. respectively).
HH3 Blaschek, W.; Hansel, R.; Keller, K.; Reichling, J.; Rimpler, H.; Schneider, G. (Eds.: 1998). Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), and Band 3 (L-Z). Springer-Verlag, Berlin.(909 and 858 pp. respectively)
HHB List, P.H. and Hohammer, L. 1969-1979. Hagers Handbach der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
HOE Duke, J.A. 1983. Handbook of Energy Species. USDA documents, online at Purdue University.
IED Duke, J.A. 1986. Isthmian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. 3rd ed. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India. 205 pp. Partially online at
IHB Burkill, I.H. 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Art Printing Works, Kuala Lumpur. 2 vols.
JAD James A. Duke, personal communication
JE Journal Of Ethnopharmacology
JFM Morton, F.J. Major Medicinal Plants. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL (1977); and Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL (1981)
JLH Hartwell, Jonathan L. (1982). Plants Used Against Cancer. A Survey. Quarterman Publications, Inc., Lawrence, MA. 710 pp. (Reprinted from eleven different issues of Lloydia 1967-1971). Also see our article on Jonathan Hartwell's work.
JMF Journal Of Medicinal Food
JNP Journal Of Natural Products
JTR Roig y Mesa, J.T. 1945. Plantas Medicinales, Aromaticos, o Venenosas de Cuba. Cultural, S.A., Havana. 972 pp.
KAB Kirtikar, K.R.; Basu, B.D.; (Reprint 1975; 1st Edition, 1918; 2nd Ed. 1935 or 1938). Indian Medicinal Plants. 4 volumes text; 4 volumes illustrations. M/S Periodical Experts. New Delhi.
KAP Kapoor, L.D.(1990). Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 416 pp.
KEB Bone, K. (1996). Clinical Applications of Ayurvedic and Chinese Herbs -- Monographs for the Western Herbal Practitioner. Phytotherapy Press, Warwick, Australia. 152 pp.
KOM Blumenthal, M., Busse, W.R., Goldberg, A., Gruenwald, J., Hall, T., Riggins, C.W., and Rister, R.S. (Eds.) The Complete German Commission E Monographs. Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. American Botanic Council, Austin, TX and Integrative Medicine Communications, Boston, MA. 684 pp
LMP Perry, L.M.; Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia. (1980); MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 620 pp.
LYM Buhner, S.H. (2005). Healing Lyme - Natural Healing and Prevention of Lyme Borreliosis and Its Coinfections. Raven Press, New York. 272 pp.
MAD Madaus, G. Lehrbuch der biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol. 1-3 Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, reprint of 1938 Madaus. 2862 pp + 144 pp. index. (1976)
MAX Martinez, M. Las Plantas Medicinales de Mexico. 5th Ed. La Impresora Aztecas, Ediciones Botas, Mexico, DF. 657 pp.
MBC Martinez, A.J.V.; Bernal, M.H.Y.; Caceres, A.(Eds.) 2000. Fundamentos de Agrotecnologia de Cultivo de Plantas Medicinales Iberoamericanas. CYTED. Santafe de Bogota, DC, Colombia. 524 pp.
MCK McKenna, D.J., Jones, K., and Hughs, K., with Humphrey, S. (2002). Botanical Medicines, The Desk Reference for Major Herbal Supplements. 2nd ed. The Haworth Herbal Press, Binghamtom, NY. 1138 pp.
MD2 Lacaze, D. and Alexiades, M. 1995. Salud Para Todos -- Plantas Medicinales y Salud Indigene en la Cuenca del Rio Madre de Dios Peru - un Manual Practico. Federacion Nativa del Rio Madre de Dios y Afluentes. Madre de Dios, Peru. 287 pp.
MPB Gupta, M.P. (Ed.) 1995. 270 Plantas Medicinales Iberoamericanas. Talleres de Editorial Presencia Ltda., Bogota, 617 pp.
MPG Mors, W.B., Rizzini, C.T., and Pereira, N.A. Medicinal Plants of Brazil. Reference Publications. Algonac, MI. 501 pp. (2000)
MPI ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) (1976, 1987). Medicinal Plants of India. Volumes 1 and 2. Indian Council of Medicinal Research. Cambridge Printing Works. New Delhi. (487 and 600 pp. respectively).
NAD Nadkarni, A.K., 1976. (Revised & Enlarged). Dr. K.M. Nadkarni's Indian Materia Medica. Vol. One. 1319 pp. Volume Two. (Originally edited by Dr. K.M. Nadkarni, 1908.) Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd., Bombay. 968 pp.
NIG Nigg, H.N.; Seigler, D.S. (Eds.: 1992). Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
NPM Manandhar, N.P. (2002). Plants and People of Natal. Timber Press. Portland, OR. 599 pp.
NWO Nwosu, M.O. Ethnobotanical Studies on Some Pteridophytes of Southern Nigeria. Econ. Bot. 56(3); pp. 255-259.
PC Professional journal: "Phytochemistry"
PCS Standley, P.C. (1920-1926) Trees and Shrubs of Mexico. 5 parts. (Contr. US Nat. Herb.). 1722 pp.
PED Pedersen, M., 1998 Nutritional Herbology -- A Reference Guide to Health, 4th Printing; revised and expanded edition. Wendell W. Whitman Co., Warsdaw, IN. 336 pp., plus index.
PH2 Gruenwald, J. et al. PDR for Herbal Medicines. Ed. 2. Medical Economics Company, Inc., Montvale, NJ. 858 pp. (2000)
PHM Phytomedicine
PHR Fleming, T. and Gruenwald, J. et al. (1998) PDR for Herbal Medicine. 1st Ed. Medical Economics Co., Montavale, NJ. 1244 pp.
PM Planta Medica -- See description.
PNC Williamson, E.M, and Evans, F.J. (1989) Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C.W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
PR Phytotherapy Research
PUB PMID Pub Med Abstrats:
RA2 Taylor, Leslie, Raintree Nutrition Database
-- (2006)
RAI Taylor, Leslie 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp. . . . and/or
RAR Rutter, R.A., 1990. Catalogo de Plantas Utiles de la Amazonia Peruana. Instituto Linguistico de Verano, Yarinacocha, Peru. 349 pp.
RDF Revista de Fitoterapia -- (summaries cover the years of publication, 2000-present).
ROE Roersch, C., 1994. Plantas Medicinales de al Sur Andino del Peru. 2 vols. Koeltz Scientific Books. Koenigstein.
SAH Holst, Sanford. Moringa: Nature's Medicine Cabinet, 2011, Santorini Publishing, Los Angeles, CA 91403. ISBN: 978-0-9833279-1-2.
SAR Schultes, R.E.; Raffauf, R.F. (1990). The Healing Forest. Dioscorides Press. Portland, OR. 484 pp.
SHT Schulz, V., Hansel, R., Tyler, V.E. 1998. Rational Phytotherapy -- A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd edition. 1st English Edition. Translated by Terry C. Telger. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. 306 pp.
SKJ Jain, S.K.; deFillips, R. (1991). Medicinal Plants of India. 2 vols. Reference Publications, Algonac, MI. 849 pp.
SKY Lininger, S. (Ed.); Wright J.; Austin S.; Brown D.; Gaby A. (1998). The Natural Pharmacy. Prima Publications, Rocklin, CA. 450 pp.
SOU Soukup, J (1970). Vocabulary of the Common Names of the Peruvian Flora and Catalog of the Genera. Editorial Salesiano, Lima. 436 pp.
TRA Germosén-Robineau, L. (Eds: 1997). Farmacopea Vegetal Caribeña. Enda-caribe. Tramil. Ediciones Emile Desormeaux, Martinique, F.W.I. 360 pp.
ULW Coe, F.G. and Anderson, G.J. 1999, Ethnobotany of the Suma (Ulwa) of Southeastern Nicaragua and Comparisons with Miskitu Plant Lore. Econ. Bot. 53(4):363-386.
UPH Uphof, J.C. Th. (1968) Dictionary Of Economic Plants. 2nd ed. Verlag Von J. Cramer, Berlin.
UPW Burkill, H.M. 1985-1995. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. Edition 2, Vol. 1, A-D (1985), 960 pp; Vol. 2, E-I, 1994, 636 pp.; Vol 3, J-LI, 1995 857 pp.; Vol. 4, Vol 5., S-Z, 2000, 686 pp. (Plus Cryptogams, Addenda).
USN USDA Nomenclature Database.
VAD Vadmecum Garcia, A.A. et al. (1998). Fitoterapia Vademecum de Prescripción Masson, S.A. Barcelona, España. 1148 pp.
VOD Beauvoir, M.G., DeFillips, R.A., and Wolpert, B.J. with Crepin, J. 2001. Selected Medicinal Plants of Haitian Vodou. Typescript. Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C. 256 pages
WO2 CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). 1985. The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. First Revised Edition. Vol. 1: A CSIR Hillside Road, New Delhi. 513 pp. + 54 pp. index.
WO3 CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). 2000. The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. First Supplement Series (raw materials). Vol. 1 : A-Ci. CSIR Hillside Road, New Delhi. 283 pp. + 24 pp. index.
WOI CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). (1948-1976). The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. 11 vols. CSIR Hillside Road, New Delhi.
X This prefix is always followed by a number: PubMed reference citation (e.g., X123456) searchable at
ZUL Hutchings, A.; Scott, A.H.; Lewis, G.; Cunningham, A. 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants. An Inventory. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg. 450 pp.

The referenced book on this page can be purchased from Amazon.